Gases

Liquid oxygen is a cryogenic liquid with a boiling point of –297°F (–183°C). Oxygen is often stored as a liquid, although it is used primarily as a gas. Liquid storage is less bulky and less costly than the equivalent capacity of high-pressure gaseous storage. However, most applications use oxygen after it is vaporized to the gaseous form.

Properties

Oxygen will react with nearly all organic materials and metals, usually forming an oxide. Materials that burn in air will burn more vigorously in oxygen.

Medical Uses

 

Industrial Uses
  • Metal Production
  • Pulp & Paper
  • Refineries
  • Water & wastewater treatment
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Biotechnology
  • Welding & metal fabrication
  • Aerospace & aircraft
  • Automative
  • Transportation equipment
  • Chemicals
  • Energy
  • Glass
  • Healthcare

Liquid nitrogen is cold enough to exist in liquid form. Liquid nitrogen is used in industries for its cold temperature (-195.8ºC or -320.4ºF) and low reactivity.

Properties
  • Non-toxic
  • Odourless
  • Colourless
  • Relatively inert
Medical Uses
  • Cryotherapy in skin procedures
  • Cryopreservation of biological samples, tissues, eggs, sperms, etc
Industrial Uses
  • Freezing & transport of food products
  • Coolants for superconductors, vacuum pumps, equipment production
  • Quick freezing of water pipes to allow work where valves are not available
  • Shielding materials from oxygen exposure
  • For branding cattle
  • Molecular gastronomy
  • Food & beverages
  • Liquid nitrogen ice creams
  • Cooling materials for easier machining & fracturing
  • Science projects
  • Nitrogen fog
Industries
  • Light bulbs
  • Welding & metal fabrication
  • Fertilizers
  • Pharma
  • Stainless steel
  • Biotechnology
  • High voltage equipment
  • Oil & gas
  • Metal production
  • Healthcare
  • Energy
  • Automotive & Transport equipment
  • Aerospace & Aircrafts
  • Diving
  • Electronics
  • Glass
  • Laboratories
  • Food Industries
Properties
  • Slightly toxic
  • Odourless
  • Colourless
  • Slightly pungent
  • Acidic taste
Industrial Uses
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Artificial CO2 snowing
  • Greenhouse farming & gardening
  • Rapid freezing or chilling
  • Processed meat industry
Properties at Room Temperature
  • Colourless
  • Non inflammable
  • Slightly metallic smell
  • Slightly metallic taste
Medical Uses
  • Anesthetic in surgery & dentistry
Industrial Uses
  • Dairy
  • Diving
  • Racing

Developed for particular applications.

Common Uses
  • Food & Beverages
  • Welding & Cutting
Common Uses
  • Welding & Cutting
  • Steel & Nickel
Properties
  • Colourless
  • Faint garlic-like odour
  • Lighter than air in its gaseous form
  • Ignites easily
Industrial Uses
  • Carbon dating in archeology
  • Welding & Cutting
  • Heat treating
  • Portable lighting
  • Chemical
  • Polyethylene plastics like PVC, PVDF
Properties
  • Non reactive
  • Inert
  • Colourless
  • Odourless
Industrial Uses
  • Aerospace & Aircrafts
  • Stainless steel
  • Chemical
  • Diving
  • Electronics
  • Energy
  • Laboratory
  • Automotive & Transportation Equipment
  • Lighting
  • Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology
  • Welding & Metal fabrication
Properties
  • Very unreactive
  • Colourless
  • Odourless
  • Non-toxic
  • Very low density
  • Highest ionization potential
  • Cryogenic temperature is -451ºF or 269ºC
Medical Uses
  • In MRIs & NMRs
  • Cryogenic preservation in laboratories & hospitals
Industrial Uses
  • Electronics (Semiconductors, LCD panels, fiber optic wire)
  • Welding & Metal fabrication
  • Diving
  • Automotive & Transport Equipment (Airbags, AC components, radiator heat exchangers, fuel tanks, torque converters)
  • Aerospace & Aircraft manufacture
  • Carbon dating in archeology
  • Optics (telescope, optical fibre, lazer)